What Is Nisin E234?

What is Nisin E234?

Nisin E234 is a polycyclic antibacterial peptide produced by streptococcus lactis.

Nisin, also known as Streptococcus lactic (strep lactis) peptide, is a natural biological activity of antimicrobial peptides used as a natural food preservative E234.

It is a natural preservative E234 and has a strong inhibitory effect on many gram-positive bacteria, including spoilage and pathogens.


Nisin bacteriocin is the only one bacteriocin that used as E324 food additive.

Nisin E234 structure

Nisin Chemical formula C143H230N42O37S7, The structure has 34 amino acid, including five uncommon amino acids: ABA, DHA, DHB, ALA-S-ALA and ALA-S-ABA.

Nisin molecular weight: 3,354.07 g/mol

Nisin E234 Properties


1)Strong inhibiting activities. Nisin E234 specifically targets the stubborn Bacillus spp. and their spores.

2)High safety. Nisin E234 can be quickly digested into amino acids with the aid of enzymes in human stomach.

3)Good stability. Nisin E234 is stable in acid conditions and can keep active even at 121℃ for 30mins.

4)Easy water soluble.

5)No flavor influence.

Nisin solubility

Nisin E234 is a solid powder that is soluble in water or in liquids and has different solubility at different pH values. As in general water (pH = 7) Nisin solubility is 49 mg Nisin / ml; if in 0.02 M HCl the solubility is increased to 118 mg Nisin / ml.

Nisin Biosynthesis

Nisin, E234, also known as Streptococcus lactic peptide, is a kind of polypeptide compound extracted from the fermentation product of streptococcus lactis. Nisin is a natural antimicrobial agent used as a natural preservative in heat processed and low pH foods. According to the Food Chemical News Guide (a reference guide to the uses of foods additives permitted under Federal Law), Nisin preparation is a concentrate of dry material derived from the controlled fermentation of a naturally occurring milk bacteria Streptococcus lactis. This bacterium contains Nisin, a group of related peptides (partial amino acid chains that make up proteins) with antibiotic activity. The chemical Nisin cannot be synthesized artificially, so the Nisin-producing bacteria are basically farmed for their synthesis of Nisin.

Nisin manufacturing process begins by fermenting the milk bacteria. The resulting Nisin is concentrated, separated, and dried before milling into fine particles and standardized by the addition of sodium chloride (salt). The resulting typical composition is nisin (2.5%), sodium chloride (greater than 50%) ,protein (23.8%), and moisture (less than 3%).

Nisin mode of action

Numerous studies on the mode of action of sensitive vegetative cells and spores have been studied in large part on the role of vegetative cells in the plasma membrane and Nisin E234 has the damaging effect of exuding the most important cytoplasm, such as adenosine triphosphate. More importantly, cytolysis is caused, and careful studies on the way in which protoplasm acts show that the matrix in the cytoplasm becomes inactive due to the destruction of Nisin E234.

Nisin E234 acts against spores of bacteria rather than resting spores, so it is believed that Nisin E234, unlike other preservatives, inhibits sprouting prior to the expansion of the spores, with examples illustrating that heat-killed of the spores are more sensitive to Nisin, which is why Nisin E234 provides a good preservative effect in hot processed canned foods and saves a lot of energy.

What is Nisin preparation?

Nisin preparation consists of nisin and sodium chloride with an activity of not less than 900 units per mg. The activity of pure Nisin is about 40 × 1000000IU / g (effective concentration in general food is 25 ~ 500IU / g). The Nisin product is a complex of Nisin and sodium chloride and other ingredients, the activity of 1 × 1000000IU / g. Nisin preparation is safe and gluten free.

Nisin Benefits

Nisin E234 is effective in killing or inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria that cause food spoilage such as Lactobacilli, Botox, Staphylococcus, Listeria, Thermotolerant bacteria, Corynebacterium, Pediococcus, Leuconostoc, Branches Bacillus and so on. Especially for spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus, Clostridium, Bacillus thermophilus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus spores and other strong inhibition. Under certain conditions, such as the more acidic conditions, YP-1000 Nisin can also kill Gram-negative bacteria and other bacteria.

In general, spore-forming bacteria are very heat-resistant, such as transient sterilization at 135 ° C for 2 seconds at a temperature of 100 ° C, non-spore bacteria of 100%, spore germs of 90%, and 10% Bacillus bacteria can not kill. Bacillus, Clostridium spores germination and reproduction can be completely inhibited by adding 2-4 ppm Nisin or 0.5-80 ppm Nisin.