Rutin, also called rutoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and sophorin, is the glycoside between the flavonol quercetin and the disaccharide rutinose (α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(16))-β-D-glucopyranose). In the fava d'anta tree, the synthesis is done via a rutin synthase activity.
Rutin is one of the phenolic compounds found in the invasive plant species Carpobrotus edulis and contributes to the antibacterial and antioxidant properties of the plant.
Rutin (quercetin rutinoside), like quercitrin, is a glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin. As such, the chemical structures of both are very similar, with the difference existing in the hydroxyl functional group. Both quercetin and rutin are used in many countries as medications for blood vessel protection, and are ingredients of numerous multivitamin preparations and herbal remedies.
While a body of evidence for the effects of rutin and quercetin is available in mice,rats, hamsters,and rabbits, as well as in vitro studies, no clinical studies directly demonstrate significant, positive effects of rutin as dietary supplement in humans.
Rutin inhibits platelet aggregation, as well as decreases capillary permeability, making the blood thinner and improving circulation.
Rutin shows anti-inflammatory activity in some animal and in vitro models.
Rutin inhibits aldose reductase activity.Aldose reductase is an enzyme normally present in the eye and elsewhere in the body. It helps change glucose into the sugar alcohol sorbitol.
Recent studies show rutin could help prevent blood clots, so could be used to treat patients at risk of heart attacks and strokes.
Some evidence also shows rutin can be used to treat hemorrhoids, varicosis, and microangiopathy.
Rutin increases thyroid iodide uptake in rats without raising serum T3 or T4.
Rutin is also an antioxidant;compared to quercetin, acacetin, morin, hispidulin, hesperidin, and naringin, it was found to be the strongest.However, in other trials, the effects of rutin were lower or negligible compared to those of quercetin.